The 2022 Nobel Prize laureates were announced between 3-10 October this year, marking people who “during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind.” The Nobel Prize usually includes prizes in physics, chemistry, physiology and medicine, literature, peace, and economic sciences. The Nobel Prize is considered the most prestigious award in one’s field and has been awarded to the discoverers of the x-ray, radioactivity, and penicillin (Sweden, 2022).
The Nobel Prize is the result of Alfred Nobel’s passion in the sciences. Being a chemist, engineer, and an inventor himself, Nobel wanted his assets to go to a fund that would distribute annual prizes. The inventor, at the time of his death, held 355 patents in a number of different countries, and there were countries selling explosives of different kinds that were created with inventions patented by him (Sweden, 2022).
In 1900, a few years after Nobel died, the four institutions awarding the prizes agreed to create the Nobel Foundation, which is now a private institution based on Nobel’s will. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is responsible for awarding the prize in physics, chemistry, and economic sciences. The Swedish Academy awards the prize in literature, the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet awards the Prize in physiology or medicine, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Peace Prize (Sweden, 2022).
This year, the prize-awarding institutions have announced their 2022 prize decisions as follow, according to the official Nobel Prize website:
Physiology or Medicine – Svante Pääbo
Physics – Alain Aspect, John F. Clauser, Anton Zeilinger
Chemistry – Carolyn R. Bertozzi, Morten Meldal, K. Barry Sharpless
Literature – Annie ErnauxPeace – Ales Bialiatski, Memorial, Center for Civil Liberties Economic Sciences –—- Ben Bernanke, Douglas Diamond, Philip Dybvig
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Nobel Prize. (2022). Prize announcement dates. NobelPrize.org. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/about/prize-announcement-dates/
Sweden. (2022). The nobel prize. sweden.se. https://sweden.se/work-business/study-research/the-swedish-nobel-prize